3oo HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. force was too weak to effect anything of importance. Shortly afterwards peace was made on the terms of the actual . position, Baghdad, which had been strongly garrisoned, being retained by Turkey and Erivan by Persia. Abbas //., 1052-1077 (1642-1667).—Shah Safi was succeeded by his son Abbas II., a boy of ten, and for some years, under his Ministers, there was evidently a reaction to a more austere tone, wine-bibbing being regarded as a bar to office. But, as was to be .expected, the young Shah when he attained his majority indulged in the vices of the period, and all European travellers without distinc- tion were admitted to share his orgies. Apart from this, the country was apparently prosperous and happy, and Kandahar was recovered by an army led by the young Shah in person. Architecture flourished during his reign. To him we owe the stately quadrangle of the Sahn-i-Kuhna, or " Old Court," at Meshed, the portico of which is a particularly fine example of Safavi architecture combined with the potter's art.1 The Uzbeg Refugees.—In the time of Abbas II. an Uzbeg prince sought the protection of the Shah, and was treated with extraordinary generosity and honour. Later Nazir Mohamed, the Uzbeg monarch, threw himself on Persian hospitality, and met with similar disinterested kindness, an army being placed at his disposal to aid him in asserting his rights. There was, indeed, a certain chivalrous spirit in the Safavi monarchs, who never showed to greater advantage than in their treatment of refugees and foreign travellers. The First Russian Embassy to Persia^ A.D. 1664.—It is difficult to realize that Russia, whose frontiers are now conterminous with those of Persia from Ararat on the west to Kalat-i-Nadiri and Sarakhs on the east, had practi- cally no relations with Iran until some two and a half centuries ago. The first recorded embassy was from the Emperor Alexis/ usually termed the - Grand Duke 1 Fide my "Historical Notes on Khorasan," Journal R.A.S. for October 1910, p. 1133. He was the father of Peter the Great, and curiously enough in this very year he received an embassy from Charles IT. of England.